The layers of the Tropical Rainforest
The rainforest is divided into three layers or strata of vegetation, each with differences in temperature, the amount of light and water they receive.
With its combined range of plant and animal species, rainforests are the most productive biomes on Earth and the greatest biodiversity.
They are characterized by average annual temperatures of 25'C, abundant rainfall, up to 4,500 millimeters per year, and its limiting factor is light.
The forests extend in a discontinuous manner over extensive territories and the presence of mountains, plateaus, lakes, reservoirs and rivers prevents cover the entire equatorial zone.
The virgin forest is located in Central and South America, Central Africa and in Malaysia and Indonesia. The landscape is similar in all these areas, but each has its own characteristics.
The soil, which provides water and minerals, is very fertile in the jungle, and that organic matter is rapidly decomposed by the heat and humidity, and nutrients are washed away by heavy rains.
In addition, it remains moist, as the foliage absorbs nearly all light and does not allow passage of sunlight into the interior. The visibility reaches 20 meters.
The dominant vegetation is trees, with specimens from 20 to 40 meters. Contrary to popular belief, large trunk trees without low branches make up a landscape that is relatively easy to move.
Also abundant epiphytes, living on other ", the typical woody vines called lianas, ferns, shrubs and countless other species.
Even life forms belonging to the kingdom of fungi, protists and moneras thrive. With no cold weather, plants keep their foliage all year round. Most of the vegetation consists of hardwoods, with very few herbaceous plants.
Counter to some wooded areas of Europe or North America, where there are few dominant tree species and sometimes only one (eg pine or oak), thrive in the wilderness a hundred species of trees per hectare.
There are typically two height levels, the upper reaches to 30 and more meters, and the understory, which reaches 15 meters.
Lianas, ferns, flowering plants and certain algae and moss can grow in the jungle, but only in the area of greater height, where they receive enough light.